What is Raster and Vector Graphics?

Raster image and vector image are two different types of image files in graphic design. So, they are two simple but complex forms used in computer graphics. What is the definition of raster and vector image? I think you have seen artwork both in paint and illustrator. Raster programs are something like painting and vector programs are like illustrator drawing. When you are using a raster program, it results in dipping a brush in paint and painting. Unlike the raster program, when you are using a vector program, it will result in you to draw the outline of shapes, that means the vector program works with lines and shapes. Want to know more about this? Ok, I am describing all about raster to vector graphics in details, let’s look into it,


What is a raster image?

Raster graphics also known as bitmaps, that is a grid of individual pixels of color. You can find a raster image with so many pixels square (like a mosaic) and they are arranged to create raster images. You might be familiar with the word resolution, high resolution, etc. do you want to realize ever what is that resolution? Resolutions are also pixels and pixels are a set grid of dots, so when we say high-resolution images that means, the image contains a greater number of pixels per unit. For example, an image with 500×700 px means that the picture contains 500 pixels vertically and 700 pixels horizontally. Resolutions of raster images are measured in the scale of dpi (dots per inch). The higher the dpi, the better the resolution.  Humans won't be able to notice pixels while you can see it by zooming in a picture on the screen.

Changing the size of a raster image is something shrinking or stretching the pixels themselves. Raster graphics are highly used for photographs, scanned artwork, or detailed graphics. Raster the program uses adobe photoshop and GIMP and one can use this program in designing websites, apps, icons, banner advertisements, and other purposes.

Scalability of the raster image

We know that the quality of raster images depends on PPI (pixel per inch). A printed raster image quality depends on 2 major things,

  1. The pixel dimension of the image.
  2. The pixel resolution is required by a particular printer.

When you are detecting resolution in any output device, what do you think is that the files own eternal specifications? No, it’s not, it is the output capacity of the device. Imagine that you are going to print a brochure that needs a background image including size of 8.5” ×11” inch. Then the image should be at least 2550 pixels in width and 3300 pixels in tall with a resolution of 300 PPI. Above all, raster images can’t be scaled in a larger size and if they are scaled, it loses quality and becomes blurry because the entire pixels become larger but they can be scaled down.

Resolution of the raster image

Raster image comes and is displayed with a specific resolution. Resolution is nothing but millions of square pixels. The higher the resolution is the greater the number of pixels has been contributed to form that. So, the size of the raster image has been always in a fixed value. Although, images with high resolution should only be used in the device that has the ability to display them.

File size of the raster image

Raster image comes with different file types like,

        PNG

        JPEG

        GIP

        TIFF

        PSD

How to determine the best printing size for your raster image?

If a printer requires a minimum of 300 dpi and you want to print an image in an area that is 5 inches wide, multiply 300pixels × 5 inches = 1500. Your image must be at least 1500 pixels wide.

What is a vector image?



Vector graphics is the opposite form of raster graphics. We know about raster images and its structure from the above discussion, now we would know about the vector image. The type of vector image work is almost different from the raster image. While raster images are arranged with pixels or dots, vector images are based on mathematical formulas that define points, lines, curves, paths. The vector image used a mathematical calculation from one point to another to take shape and also color in an image. zooming in a vector image doesn’t cause cracked feelings because they are composed of true geometric primitives so that they can represent a more structured image.

Generally, vector graphics are less detailed, they contain fewer gradients and less diversity of color. Vector graphics are highly used to create such kind of image version that is needed to be used in different sizes. In vector graphics, one can easily maintain crisp, sharp edges of an image even if it enlarged significantly. Without losing quality vectors can be infinitely scaled and it is best to use for logo, illustration, engraving, etching, product artwork, etc.

Scalability of vector image

No matter how much you scale up or down or how many times you change their size, vector images don't loose their quality and sharpness. Vector images are quickly and perfectly scalable and much more versatile and flexible than a raster image. Since vector images form with mathematical equations, you can resize them by simply recalculating the equation and maintaining crisp, sharp edges.

Mathematical formula

When raster images are built upon resolution, vector images don’t have any relation to that. It comes with a variety of geometric and mathematical formulas and shapes that calculate the measurement of the image. vector graphics are not resolution-dependent.

File size of vector image

common vector file types are,

        EPS

        AI

        PDF

        SVG

        SKETCH

Vector programs include Adobe illustrator, sketch, CorelDRAW.

Difference between raster and vector graphics

Raster and vector are two different sides of graphic design. Their structure and type of work are almost different from each other. Here I tried to focus on some major differences, advantages, and disadvantages of them.

Raster

        Raster is pixel-based.

        Best for photographs, photo editing, and scanned artwork.

        Cannot be scaled up

        Raster includes large files.

        Raster images are the most common image formats like PNG, JPG, PSD, etc.

        Suitable for painting and detailed editing.

        Some processes are unable to use the raster program.

Vector

        Vector is a mathematical formula based.

        Best for creating logos, artwork, illustrations, etc.

        Can be scaled to any size without losing quality.

        Vector images can be printed in any size or resolution.

        Vector graphics include small files.

        Vector art can be used for all processes.

        Vector images file types include eps, ai, pdf, SVG, etc.

        Suitable for drawing

        Can be easily converted to raster.

Final Verdict

Finally, it's time to make the end of the discussion. images whatever it is raster or vector, both have their unique qualities and purposes. but it is important to know when you should choose raster and vice versa. raster images are best for photos and vectors are best for logos, illustrations, engravings, etchings, artworks, etc. but at a large amount, raster and vector services are now commonly used to restore images, logos, and banners that are being faded by used after years and years. The vector program is so effective in this issue and can turn old and lifeless images into a glowing one. I used to clarify both of them in this article and now, it’s your time to use them to your advantage.